- Other names: Caá-porá, caiçara, caipora, cayporé, coropira, corubira, kaaguerre, kaapore, korupira kurupi, kurú-piré, yurupari
- Country reported: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay
"Curupira" comes from the Guaraní curumim ("boy") + pira ("body"). Kuru also means "short" or "small" in Aché.
The curupira is described as being fairly small, only around 3 to 4 feet tall, with red or yellow skin, and covered in shaggy red hair, with a mane around its neck. Facially it resembles a chimpanzee, with a flattened nose, a large mouth, and blue or green teeth. Like many cryptid primates of South and Central America, its most notable feature are its feet, which are turned backwards and display crooked toes. The backwards, apelike tracks it leaves behind confuse hunters, leading them in the wrong direction.
More folkloric characteristics attributed to the curupira include a tendency to kidnap children and rape women, shapeshifting, and the smoking of a pipe. It is also said to ride atop a pig or a deer and, like the mapinguari, protects the forest, the trees, and the animals.
French ethnologist François-Xavier Pelletier led an expedition to the Brazilian Amazon in 1996 to search for the curupira.
Pelletier led a second expedition to Brazil in June 1997.
The curupira may be a surviving relative of Protopithecus, a late Pleistocene spider monkey known from fossils in Eastern Brazil. A similar hypothesis has been put forward to explain the De Loys' ape, if it is real.