Encyclopaedia of Cryptozoology

The Champagne system is a system of categorising sea serpent sightings developed by Bruce A. Champagne in 2001, and finalised in 2007.[1][2][3] After examining 1,247 sightings, he concluded that there were only 351 credible observations, and classified the animals into nine categories, some of which have their own sub-categories. While Champagne's preliminary study recognised three types, the long-necked, eel-like, and multiple-humped,[2] the final Champagne types are the long-necked I, long-necked II, eel-like I, eel-like II, eel-like III, multiple-humped, sail-finned I, sail-finned II, carapaced, saurian, segmented, digited, and snake-like.[3][4]

In 2016, Champagne published an analysis of lake monster reports, in which he concluded that his multi-humped sea serpent, the "classic" undulating sea serpent, could explain several lake monsters,[5] making the Champagne system the only sea serpent classification system besides the Coleman-Huyghe system to incorporate lake monsters.


Image Name Range Champagne's identity Equivalents in other systems
Long-necked sea serpent I Cosmopolitan Long-necked pinniped
Long-necked sea serpent II North Sea Long-necked pinniped
Eel-like I, Cameron McCormick.png
Eel-like sea serpent I North Atlantic Ocean Reptile
Eel-like sea serpent II Atlantic and Pacific Oceans Beaked whale
Eel-like III, Cameron McCormick.png
Eel-like sea serpent III Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, South China Sea Reptile
Multiple-humped, Cameron McCormick.png
Multiple-humped sea serpent Atlantic and Pacific Oceans Possible reptile
Sail-finned sea serpent I North Atlantic Ocean Beaked whale
Sail-finned sea serpent II Cosmopolitan Possible reptile or mammal
Carapaced sea serpent Cosmopolitan Possible mammal or mammal-like reptile
Saurian sea serpent.png
Saurian sea serpent North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea Crocodile or crocodile-like reptile
Segmented sea serpent Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans Mammal
Digited sea serpent, Cameron McCormick.png
Digited sea serpent North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans Possible amphibian or reptile
Snake-like sea serpent Atlantic Ocean Reptile

Notes and references

  1. Eberhart, George M. (2002) Mysterious Creatures: A Guide to Cryptozoology ABC-CLIO, Inc. ISBN 1-57607-283-5
  2. 2.0 2.1 Champagne, Bruce A. "A Preliminary Evaluation of the Study of the Morphology, Behaviour, Autoecology, and Habitat of Large, Unidentified Marine Animals, Based on Recorded Field Observations," Crypto-Dracontology Special No. 1 (November 2001)
  3. 3.0 3.1 Champagne, Bruce A. "A Classification System for Large, Unidentified Marine Animals Based on the Examination of Reported Observations," Elementum Bestia: Being an Examination of Unknown Animals of the Air, Earth, Fire and Water (2007), Lulu Press, ASIN B001DSIB2W
  4. "Bruce A. Champagne," The Haunted Sea with Scott Mardis, Monster X Radio (2019) — Online
  5. Champagne, Bruce A. "A Preliminary, Comparative Type Proposal For Large, Unidentified Marine and Freshwater Animals," The Journal of Cryptozoology Vol. 4 (December 2016)